End of an Internship

Well…I’m afraid I’m going to be a bad blogger this week (especially since I’m already late with this post) and say that I was simply too busy to write anything.

In my defense though, I went to a few new dive sites and finished up my divemaster internship (YAHOO)!

Tune in soon…I plan on doing a review of all the dive sites I’ve been privileged enough to visit over the last few weeks!

In the meantime, I’m gearing up for 10 days of downtime throughout Bali, as well as a quick jaunt over to Komodo.

I’m going to miss diving here, but I’m also excited to get back to my drysuit in Canada. 🙂

The Importance of Being Buoyant

Another week in paradise has come and gone! I still feel so incredibly lucky to be able to take this time and do my divemaster certification here in Bali.

This last week I’ve been diving in the ocean a lot less…after all, there’s a whole pile of skills that have to be done in the pool! Fortunately Bali Scuba has a pool right on site, so that makes things lots easier. I’ve also had a number of knowledge reviews to work through…I’m sure all the PADI certified divers remember those lovely tasks from their open water courses. A necessary evil…can’t do the fun stuff without putting in some legwork first!

There is something that I’ve really been starting to notice out here that I want to talk about with this blog post. During this internship I’ve been going diving with a lot of novice divers again (back in Canada I’ve mostly been diving with people that have been diving regularly for years). It’s incredibly rewarding to see so many people getting excited about the underwater world and learning to dive and know that I’m helping them achieve their goal of learning to dive. Unfortunately, I’ve also been noticing that in a lot of the sites frequented by novice divers there’s also an awful lot of broken coral and sponges.

Sadly, errant fin kicks can do a lot of damage to sedentary animals

Although the damage to this coral is a relatively small area, it represents years of growth.

At first I wondered if this was a result of boat anchors being carelessly dropped on the reefs, but the more I’ve watched the divers at these sites the more I’m realizing that a good chunk of the damage I’ve seen is very likely due to divers with poor buoyancy control either accidently crashing into the coral during an uncontrolled descent, or inadvertently kicking the coral with their fins as they swim past. The scale of the damage would support this theory as well; most of the broken corals or sponges I’ve spotted have been damaged by something much smaller than a boat anchor, and the damage also appears to be localized to a small fin-sized area.

There’s a very important fact to keep in mind here: although this damage looks very small to animals of our size, breaking off a chunk of coral only 30 cm (one foot) long represents years of growth for slow-growing animals like corals or sponges. Essentially for coral reefs this sort of damage can be the classic ‘death by a thousand small cuts’ a lot faster than we might think, simply because the animals don’t grow quickly enough to compensate for the damage.

Let me make a quick point before I continue; I’m not ripping on new divers. I was a new diver once too (obviously) and I know that my buoyancy control was very poor for quite awhile. I’ve also seen quite a number of divers that look like they’ve been in the sport for awhile (you can often judge by the condition of a diver’s gear whether or not they rent or have invested time and money into acquiring their own equipment) that have very clearly not placed enough emphasis on learning how to control their buoyancy. In my opinion, the issue is not necessarily poor buoyancy control, but dive operators that are under pressure by their clients to go look at the “really good sites” that typically have a lot of sensitive animals in them. The end result is that divers that are not especially good at maintaining their buoyancy end up perilously close to these very sensitive animals.

So what to do about it? Yet again, there’s a few relatively straightforward (though sadly, not very simple) ways that divers can have a positive influence on this problem.

The first one is very basic: if your buoyancy control is poor, put the effort in to make it better. I know this is much easier said than done…it took me a long time to get my buoyancy control to the point where I was happy with it and could move easily through the water with minimal effort. The three big things that helped me get better were regular diving (i.e. practice), taking classes that taught better buoyancy techniques, and seeing video of me diving.

Propper buoyancy control takes time and practice; but it’s well worth the effort! Try and keep your body parallel to the ground, with your legs straight out behind you and your head oriented straight ahead of you.

Obviously not everyone is as lucky as I’ve been; regular diving is tricky if you don’t live near a dive site, and diving is not exactly a cheap hobby. But frankly practice really is the best way to get better at something. Diving as often as you can means that you don’t forget about new ‘tricks’ you came up with to improve your buoyancy control. If you dive one day and realize that if you hold yourself just so underwater your buoyancy improves, you may not be able to remember exactly how that was if your next dive is over a year down the road.

For those of you that are vacation divers, taking a course that focuses on good buoyancy control may be a much easier option than regular practice. I understand not wanting to take up vacation time to do a course, but remember that in colder climates or even in inland areas there’s usually a dive shop not too far away; what’s stopping you from doing your course there? Even if you don’t want to do dives in a quarry or in cold water, there’s no harm in learning the skills you need there to enjoy yourself when you’re diving on vacation.

PADI offers a Peak Performance Buoyancy specialty course, and there are other organizations that offer similar courses (though PADI is certainly the mostly commonly used training organization for recreational divers). The only other program that I’ve had experience with is an organization known as Unified Team Diving (UTD) based out of the United States; the course I took was called ‘Essentials of Recreational Diving’ and it had a lot about proper buoyancy and propulsion techniques.

One big benefit of the course I took with UTD was that they had a diver with a video camera following behind us taking video of all of the students on the dive. I found this incredibly useful because it let me see exactly what it was that I was doing during the dive and know exactly when some minor adjustment I made would have a good or a bad impact on my buoyancy control. Based on how much I benefited from watching that video, I would encourage every diver to use video of themselves as a training tool whenever possible.

The second way that divers can contribute to solving this broken coral problem is to recognize if they have poor buoyancy and dive accordingly. For example, if you know that your buoyancy control is a little weak, and that you’ll be diving over a sensitive bottom, consider diving so that you’re at least 2 meters above the substrate. Obviously this means that you could miss some of the fine detail or small critters running around on the bottom, but it’s a small price to pay if it means that you’re helping to protect sensitive reef habitat. In the same vein, if you’re diving a wall or shipwreck don’t get too close to the sides, and above all avoid touching any part of the wall or wreck unless you are faced with a possible emergency (i.e. uncontrolled ascent).

Another possibility is for a diver to ask the dive center what dive sites they would recommend for someone with poor buoyancy control. Dive shops will be more than happy to realize that they have a customer who has the reef’s best interest in mind and will tailor their programs accordingly.

Ultimately, it is every diver’s individual responsibility to dive according to their own abilities, and keep the environment in which they are diving in mind when they make decisions regarding where they will dive. In my opinion, it is also the responsibility of dive shops to avoid areas with sensitive animals like coral and sponges if they know that they are leading divers with poor buoyancy control. Though it may seem a bit draconian to suggest that divers that “aren’t good enough” can’t go to certain sites, it is important to remember that excessive damage to sensitive animals is not only bad for the animals…it’s bad for other divers and local tour operators as well. If too much damage is done to a popular dive site, the very thing that makes it popular will eventually be gone, and then we all lose out.

Well, I hope this post gave you some good food for thought about your diving practices. If you have any suggestions of other methods to improve your buoyancy or reduce incidental damage to corals and sponges from issues like those I’ve discussed here, I’d love to hear from you!

There’s something fishy about the aquarium trade…

This last week has seen me really starting to get into the divemaster course, which is great! Sadly, it does mean a little bit less diving in the ocean (though not by much), and then when I do dive, I’m doing coursework. I know…woe is me! I’m doing an incredibly interesting dive certification on an island that boasts incredible dive sites no matter which way you turn!

There is one common thought that goes through my mind almost every time I descend to a new dive site out here; “Wow! It’s like the biggest aquarium ever!”

Coral Reef at Tulamben, Bali

That might seem a bit strange…but all the animals here are ones that I’ve only ever seen in aquaria back home; some have been large and public, such as those This last week has seen me really starting to get into the divemaster course, which is great! Sadly, it does mean a little bit less diving in the ocean (though not by much), and then when I do dive, I’m doing coursework. I know…woe is me! I’m doing an incredibly interesting dive certification on an island that boasts incredible dive sites no matter which way you turn!found in the galleries at the Vancouver Aquarium. Other species I’ve seen for sale in pet stores, as well as in small aquaria that I’ve had to maintain for some of the various jobs I’ve had over the years. Imagine my surprise when I suddenly realize that this HUGE anemone I’m looking at is actually the same species as the little wee ones I’ve looked after in a pet store. People want to buy them because clown fish really like them…the one I found in the wild was easily large enough to accommodate the five clownfish that were wriggling around in its tentacles. The one at the pet store was a midget by comparison.

Based on that last paragraph, you might think that I’m about to go on a rant about how these animals shouldn’t be in tiny little fish tanks. Well…close guess, but not quite right. Realistically the capture of these fish for private aquariums is just another fishery…and I’m all for making use (in a sustainable way!) of our natural resources.

The problem is that in many regions the capture of live fish and invertebrates for the aquarium trade is not sustainable. As with many other fisheries, capture limits are either non-existent or too large to be sustainable, and local governments rarely put enough effort/resources into enforcement, meaning that many people openly flaunt the catch limits. Furthermore, in many regions the methods used to capture fish are pretty awful.

In Indonesia one method that has been used to capture fish for aquariums is known as ‘Cyanide fishing’. A harvester swims down to the reef with a squirt bottle bull of Cyanide, and then shoots a little jet of poison into cracks and crevices in the reef. The poison will often paralyze a targeted fish, which then floats out of its hiding place and is scooped up to be sold at a later date. Although many of these fish die from the cyanide, enough of them recover from the poison to make the method economically sound. Even then, if they survive the harvest method, many of these fish are now too weak to survive the journey to the pet store.

Despite the high death toll, the aquarium trade is so lucrative that it’s still an incredibly profitable industry. The truly sad thing is that the people that make the most money are the wealthy ‘middle-men’…the harvesters themselves are often in pretty rough shape economically, and they see the least return for their efforts. Perhaps the saddest part of this story is the damage done to the reef itself…as you can imagine, the small living animals that make up coral reefs can’t handle a poison like Cyanide, and areas of the reef where Cyanide fishing takes place can be irreparably damaged, which makes it difficult (if not impossible) for heavily fished areas to recover.

There an important fact to bear in mind here; the aquarium trade is incredibly lucrative. Some estimates actually place its overall value as equivalent to the trafficking of illegal drugs such as cocaine. With profit margins like that, there are always going to be unscrupulous characters that will do whatever it takes to make a quick buck; the bigger tragedy is that said unscrupulous characters make their money off of people that have no more nefarious designs than making a pretty fish tank.

Despite this doom and gloom, there’s some hope to be had here.  As with many problems we face in the marine world, this is an issue that could potentially be addressed without full cessation of the harvest (although I would argue that in many coral reefs around the world, an absolute cessation of harvest may be the only way they will ever recover from damage already done).

Here are some suggestions I have if you’re interested in having your own aquarium at home, without doing needless damage to the beautiful ecosystems that we strive so hard to re-create:

1) When purchasing animals from a pet store, ask where they came from and how they were harvested. There are a lot of companies out there that use harvest techniques that do far less damage to reefs than Cyanide fishing. By buying from those companies you’re making your money do the talking for you, and demonstrating that environmentally sustainable harvest methods are important to you as a consumer. Please bear in mind; animals sustainably harvested will probably cost more than those that aren’t. I argue that monetary difference is absolutely worth maintaining healthy ecosystems halfway around the world from whence your new little beastie came.

2) If the manager/owner of the pet store can’t tell you where/how the critters were collected DO NOT make a purchase at that store, as it is likely that the critters were collected in an unsustainable manner. Again, this is a case of making your money talk; don’t be afraid to let the proprietor know (tactfully please! Putting people on the defensive over their business practices is unlikely to win many sustainability ‘converts’) why you’re not going to purchase your critters from them. If said proprietor realizes that people are more likely to purchase sustainably harvested critters then that will put pressure on the suppliers to alter their collection methods, and the wild reefs will benefit.

3) If you are not ready for a salt water aquarium, don’t get one! This might sound a bit snarky, but it’s critical that people understand that maintaining a salt water aquarium (to say nothing of a ‘reef aquarium’ with live corals) is a huge investment of time and money, and that aquarium maintenance is a skill that takes time to fully cultivate. If this is your first aquarium, consider starting with an easier set up, and do your homework! Read up about proper aquarium maintenance, and talk to people that have some experience with aquariums about the best way to maintain them. Sadly, many people suffer from an excess of exuberance, and try to build an aquarium that is beyond their ability to maintain. Ultimately this results in the death of all the critters inside the tank, not to mention a lot of wasted money! When you consider the environmental cost involved with simply getting a critter into your tank, it’s pretty sad to think that so many of them die simply because the chemical balance of the tank was incorrect when they were placed inside.

Well, that’s all for me until next week! If you have any further suggestions as to how we can make positive change in this industry I’d love to hear from you. Until next time!